To be more precise it is also known as Sunda Rhinoceros or Lesser One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is a member of the family Rhinocerotiidae and one of the five extant rhinoceroses. It belongs to the same race of the Indian rhinoceros, and has similar mosaicked skin which resembles armor. It is about 3.1-3.2 m (10-10.5 ft) in length and 1.4-1.7 m (4.6-5.8 ft) in height. It is smaller than Indian rhinoceros and is closer to the size of the black rhinoceros. Its horn is usually smaller to the other rhino species measuring about 25 cm (10 inches).
It is one of the most widespread Asian rhinoceros. The javan rhino can be seen in the island of Indonesia, throughout Southeast Asia and into India and China. This endangered species is the rarest large mammal on the earth, survives with only two known population in the wild and none is found in the zoos. A population of at least 40-50 lives in Ujung Kulon National park in Indonesia and a small population of less than eight survive in cat tien national park in Vietnam. The javan javan rhino is poached primarily for its horns, which are highly valued in Chinese medicine, costing as much as $30,000 per kilogram on the black market. Due to poaching, Loss of habitat, especially as the result of the wars in Southeast Asia have resulted to the specie's decline and hindered recovery. Two nationally protected areas are the remaining range. The rhinos are still at risk from poacher's disease and loss of genetic diversity leading to inbreeding depression.
The life span of the javan rhino is approximately 30-45 years. It is usually inhabited to lowland rain forest, wet grasslands and large floodplains. The javan rhino is mostly solitary except for courtship and child rearing. It may group together occasionally near wallows and salt licks. The javan rhino usually avoids humans, but will attack when it feels threatened. Scientist and conservationists rarely study the animals directly because of their extreme rarity and the danger of interfering; researches rely only on the camera traps and fecal samples. The least studied of all the rhino species is the javan rhino.